When you read this page take a bow. These inventors are of African descent and many of the items invented are items we use everyday. Please share this with the youth. They need to know the many great achievements we have made. You will also find a additional list near the bottom of the page with the inventions, dates and the inventors.
Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806)
Benjamin Banneker was a self-educated scientist, astronomer, inventor, writer, and antislavery publicist. He built a striking clock entirely from wood, published a Farmers' Almanac, and actively campaigned against slavery. He was one of the first African Americans to gain distinction in science. On November 9 1731, Benjamin Banneker was born in Ellicott's Mills, Maryland. He was the descendent of slaves, however, Banneker was born a freeman. At that time the law dictated that if your mother was a slave then you were a slave, and if she was a freewomen then you were a free person. Banneker's grandmother, Molly Walsh was a bi-racial English immigrant and indentured servant who married an African slave named Banna Ka, who had been brought to the Colonies by a slave trader. Molly had served seven years as an indentured servant before she acquired and worked on her own small farm. Molly Walsh purchased her future husband Banna Ka and another African to work on her farm. The name Banna Ka was later changed to Bannaky and then changed to Banneker. Benjamin's mother Mary Banneker was born free. Benjamin's father Rodger was a former slave who had bought his own freedom before marrying Mary.
Benjamin Banneker was educated by Quakers, however, most of his education was self-taught. He quickly revealed to the world his inventive nature and first achieved national acclaim for his scientific work in the 1791 survey of the Federal Territory (now Washington, D.C.). In 1753, he built one of the first watches made in America, a wooden pocket watch. Twenty years later, Banneker began making astronomical calculations that enabled him to successfully forecast a 1789 solar eclipse. His estimate made well in advance of the celestial event, contradicted predictions of better-known mathematicians and astronomers. Banneker's mechanical and mathematical abilities impressed many, including Thomas Jefferson who encountered Banneker after George Elliot had recommended him for the surveying team that laid out Washington D.C. Banneker is best known for his six annual Farmers' Almanacs published between 1792 and 1797. In his free time, Banneker began compiling the Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanac and Ephemeris. The almanacs included information on medicines and medical treatment, and listed tides, astronomical information, and eclipses, all calculated by Banneker himself.
On August 19 1791, Banneker sent a copy of his first almanac to secretary of state Thomas Jefferson. In an enclosed letter, he questioned the slaveholder's sincerity as a "friend to liberty." He urged Jefferson to help get rid of "absurd and false ideas" that one race is superior to another. He wished Jefferson's sentiments to be the same as his, that "one Universal Father . . . afforded us all the same sensations and endowed us all with the same faculties." Jefferson responded with praise for Banneker's accomplishments. Benjamin Banneker died on October 25, 1806.
Janet Emerson Bashen
In January 2006, Ms. Bashen became the first African American female to hold a patent for a software invention. The patented software, LinkLine, is a web-based application for EEO claims intake and tracking, claims management, document management and numerous reports. Bashen will soon release the federal sector counterpart, EEOFedSoft, MD715Link and the web-based AAPSoft for building Affirmative Action Plans. Janet Emerson Bashen was issued U.S. patent #6,985,922 on January 10 2006, for a "Method, Apparatus and System for Processing Compliance Actions over a Wide Area Network." Biography Janet Emerson Bashen, formerly Janet Emerson, attended Alabama A&M until she married and relocated to Houston, Texas, where she now resides.
Bashen’s educational background includes a degree in legal studies and government from The University of Houston, and postgraduate studies at Rice University’s Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Administration. Bashen is also a graduate of Harvard University’s “Women and Power: Leadership in a New World.” Bashen will soon be pursuing her LLM from Northwestern California University School of Law. Bashen maintains a very strong community commitment and is on the Board of Directors for the North Harris Montgomery County Community College District Foundation, and chairs the Corporate Advisory Board of the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, Inc., and is a Board member of the PrepProgram, a non-profit organization dedicated to preparing at-risk student athletes for college. Bashen Corporation Janet Emerson Bashen is the founder, President and CEO of Bashen Corporation, a leading human resources consulting firm that pioneered end-to-end EEO compliance administration services.
Established in September 1994, Bashen built the business from
her home office/kitchen table with no money, one client and a
fervent commitment to succeed. Janet Emerson Bashen and Bashen
Corporation are continually recognized nationally for their
business achievements. In May, 2000, Bashen testified before
Congress regarding the effect of the FTC opinion letter on third
party discrimination investigations. Bashen, along with Texas
Representative Sheila Jackson Lee, were key figures in the change
in legislation. In October 2002, Bashen Corporation was named one
of America’s entrepreneurial growth leaders by Inc Magazine in its
annual Inc 500 ranking of the nation’s fastest-growing private
companies, with an increase in sales of 552%. In October 2003,
Bashen was given the Pinnacle Award by the Houston Citizens Chamber
of Commerce. Bashen is also the recipient of the prestigious
Crystal Award, presented by the National Association of Negro
Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, Inc., for achievement in
business. Quote from Janet Emerson Bashen “My success and failures
make me who I am and who I am is a black woman raised in the south
by working class parents who tried to give me a better life by
fostering a fervent commitment to succeed.” - Janet Emerson
Doctor Patricia Bath, an ophthalmologist from New York, was living in Los Angeles when she received her first patent, becoming the first African American female doctor to patent a medical invention. Patricia Bath's patent (#4,744,360) was for a method for removing cataract lenses that transformed eye surgery by using a laser device making the procedure more accurate. Patricia Bath - Cataract Laserphaco Probe Patricia Bath's passionate dedication to the treatment and prevention of blindness led her to develop the Cataract Laserphaco Probe. The probe patented in 1988, was designed to use the power of a laser to quickly and painlessly vaporize cataracts from patients' eyes, replacing the more common method of using a grinding, drill-like device to remove the afflictions. With another invention, Bath was able to restore sight to people who had been blind for over 30 years. Patricia Bath also holds patents for her invention in Japan, Canada, and Europe. Patricia Bath - Other Achievements Patricia Bath graduated from the Howard University School of Medicine in 1968 and completed specialty training in ophthalmology and corneal transplant at both New York University and Columbia University.
In 1975, Bath became the first African-American woman
surgeon at the UCLA Medical Center and the first woman to be on the
faculty of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute. She is the founder
and first president of the American Institute for the Prevention of
Blindness. Patricia Bath was elected to Hunter College Hall of Fame
in 1988 and elected as Howard University Pioneer in Academic
Medicine in 1993. Patricia Bath - On Her Greatest Obstacle Sexism,
racism, and relative poverty were the obstacles which I faced as a
young girl growing up in Harlem. There were no women physicians I
knew of and surgery was a male-dominated profession; no high
schools existed in Harlem, a predominantly black community;
additionally, blacks were excluded from numerous medical schools
and medical societies; and, my family did not possess the funds to
send me to medical school. (Quote from Patricia Bath's NIM
Beard was born a slave on a plantation in Woodland, Alabama,
shortly before slavery ended. Andrew Beard was a farmer, carpenter,
blacksmith, a railroad worker, a businessman and finally an
inventor. In 1881, he patented his first invention, a plow, and
sold the patent rights for $4,000 in 1884. In 1887, Andrew Beard
patented a second plaw and sold it for $5,200. Beard invested the
money he made from his plow inventions into a profitable
real-estate business. In 1892, he patented a rotary engine. In
1897, Andrew Beard patented an improvement to railroad car couplers
commonly called the Jenny Coupler (not to be mistaken for the
Janney coupler). It did the dangerous job of hooking railroad cars
together, Beard, himself had lost a leg in a car coupling accident.
As an ex-railroad worker, Andrew Beard had the right idea that
probably saved countless lives and limbs. Andrew Beard received
$50,000 for the patent rights to his Jenny coupler. View the
complete patent drawings for Beard's inventions.
Some historians have reported that Edmond Berger invented an early spark plug on February 2, 1839. However, Edmond Berger did not patent his invention. Spark plugs are used in internal combustion engines and in 1839 these engines were in the early days of experimentation. Therefore, Edmund Berger's spark plug if it did exist would have had to have been very experimental in nature as well or perhaps the date was a mistake. According to Britannica a spark plug or sparking plug is, "a device that fits into the cylinder head of an internal-combustion engine and carries two electrodes separated by an air gap, across which current from a high-tension ignition system discharges, to form a spark for igniting the fuel."
George Carruthers has gained international recognition for his work which focuses on ultraviolet observations of the earth's upper atmosphere and of astronomical phenomena. Ultraviolet light is the electromagnetic radiation between visible light and x-rays. George Carruthers first major contribution to science was to lead the team that invented the far ultraviolet camera spectrograph. He developed the first moon-based space observatory, an ultraviolet camera that was carried to the moon by Apollo 16 astronauts in 1972. The camera was positioned on the moon's surface and allowed researchers to examine the Earth's atmosphere for concentrations of pollutants. Dr. George Carruthers received a patent for his invention the "Image Converter for Detecting Electromagnetic Radiation specially in Short Wave Lengths" on November 11, 1969. He has been the principal investigator for numerous NASA and DoD sponsored space instruments including a 1986 rocket instrument that obtained ultraviolet image of Comet Halley.
His most recent on the Air Force ARGOS mission captured an image of a Leonid shower meteor entering the earth's atmosphere, the first time a meteor has been imaged in the far ultraviolet from a space-borne camera. George Carruthers was born in Cincinnati Ohio on October 1, 1939 and grew up in South Side, Chicago. At the age of ten, he built a telescope, however, he did not do well in school studying math and physics but still went on to win three science fair awards. Dr. Carruthers graduated from Englewood High School in Chicago. He attended the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, where he received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering in 1961. Dr. Carruthers also obtained his graduate education at the University of Illinois, completing a master's degree in nuclear engineering in 1962 and a doctorate in aeronautical and astronautical engineering in 1964.
David Crosthwait was born in Nashville, Tennessee and grew up in Kansas City, Missouri. He received a Bachelor of Science degree (1913) and a Master of Engineering degree (1920) from Purdue University and honorary doctoral degree in 1975. Crosthwait moved to Marshall Town, Iowa in 1913 to work for the Durham Company designing heating installations. From 1925 to 1930, Crosthwait was the director of the research department, investigating heating and ventilation methods. Crosthwait holds 39 U.S. patents for heating systems, vacuum pumps, refrigeration methods and processes and temperature regulating devices, and 80 international patents for the same. He is well known for creating the heating system for New York's famous Radio City Music Hall and Rockerfeller Center. Crosthwait was an expert on heat transfer, air ventilation and central air conditioning. He was the author of a manual on heating and cooling with water and guides, standards, and codes that dealt with heating, ventilation, refrigeration, and air conditioning systems. During the 1920s and 30s, he invented an improved boiler, a new thermostat control and a new differential vacuum pump, all more effective for the heating systems in larger buildings. He was the Technical Advisor of Dunham-Bush, Inc. from 1930 to 1971. After retiring, Crosthwait taught a course on steam heating theory and control systems at Purdue University.
St Elmo Brady
Getting a PHD is no easy task, but getting one in Chemistry is even more daunting. Now imagine you are an African American in 1916. Well that is when St Elmo Brady earned his PHD in Chemistry at the University of Illinois. He was the first African American to do so. He was also the first African American to be admitted to Phi Lambda Upsilon, Chemistry Honors society in 1914 and in 1915 was inducted into Sigma Xi. He was born 1884 in Louisville, Kentucky. He decided to delve into science and attended the University of Nashville in Tennessee. He earned a Bachelor of Science in 1908. Upon graduation he accepted a position at Tuskegee University known earlier as Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. He studied at the University of Illinois with an interest in Chemistry in 1912. He earned a Masters degree in 1914 and later a Doctorate in 1916. Brady found his niche in Organic acids. He took a position as a teacher in the chemistry department of Howard University. He also taught at Tugaloo College. At the University of Illinois; Brady started a training program for teaching faculty from all colleges. This program focused on infrared Spectroscopy which recognizes a variety of components in compounds. Brady published several articles and abstracts in Science from 1914 to 1915. He also published, as collaboration with collaborated with Professor George Beal,"The Hydrochloride Method for the Determination of Alkaloids." in Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry .Brady retired from a teaching career in 1952. He was a gift to the world of Chemistry. How fitting is it that St Elmo Brady passed away on December 25th, Christmas day, 1966.
African American, Lyda Newman of New York, New York patented a new and improved hair brush on November 15, 1898. Lydia Newman designed a brush that was easy to keep clean, very durable and easy to make, and provided ventilation during brushing by having recessed air chambers.Little is known of Lyda Newman's life, she was living in Manhattan when her patent was granted. Some historians claim Newman invented the first hair brush with synthetic bristles, however, nothing in her patent indicates that was true.
Henry T. Sampson
Henry T. SampsonAmerican scientist Henry T. Sampson, is the inventor of the cell phone. Dr. Henry T. Sampson graduated from Lanier High School in 1951, attended Moore house College for two years and went on to graduate from Purdue University with a BS in Chemical Engineering.He holds a Masters Degree in Chemical Engineering from UCLA, a Masters Degree in Nuclear Engineering and a PHD in the same field. Dr. Sampson invented the Gamma Electric Cell which made it possible to convert nuclear radiation directly into Electricity. Grand Gulf Nuclear power plant is an example of the uses of Dr. Sampsons’ Gamma Electric Cell.Because the cell makes it possible to produce electricity directly from nuclear isotopes, it has become a safe alternative power source, which has also employed thousands.Born in Jackson, Mississippi, Henry T. Sampson received a Bachelor of Science Degree from Purdue University in 1956.
He went on to the University of California, Los Angele, where he
graduated with an MS Degree in Engineering in 1961; University of
Illinois Urbana-Champaign; MS Degree in Nuclear Engineering in
1965, and a PHD in 1967. On July 6, 1971, Dr. Sampson invented the
“gamma-electric cell”, which pertains to Nuclear Reactor use. This
invention produces stable high-voltage output and current, to
detect radiation in the ground.The gamma-electric cell made it
possible to send and receive audio signals via radio waves without
wires. Therefore, Henry Sampson has also been credited as the
inventor of a cell phone, which became available in 1983. Henry T.
Sampson worked as a research Chemical Engineer at the US Naval
Weapons Centre, China Lake, California, from 1956 to 1961. He then
moved on to the Aerospace Corp, El Segundo, California. His titles
include: Project Engineer, 1967-81, Director of Planning and
Operations Directorate of Space Test Programme, 1981-, and
Co-inventor of gamma-electric cell. He holds patents related to
solid rocket motors and conversion of nuclear energy into
electricity. Dr. Sampson, also pioneered a study of internal
ballistics of solid rocket motors using high-speed photography.
An improved refrigerator design was patented by African American inventor John Standard of Newark, New Jersey on June 14 1891 (U.S. patent #455,891). John Standard was also received U.S. patent #413,689 on October 29 1889 for an improved oil stove. In his patent for the refrigerator John Standard declared, "this invention relates to improvements in refrigerators; and it consists of certain novel arrangements and combinations of parts." John Standard was saying that he had found a way to improve the design of refrigerators. A non-electrical and unpowered design, Standard's refrigerator made in 1891 used a manually-filled ice chamber for chilling.
In 1891, anyone interested in mailing a letter would have to make the long trip o the post office. P. B. Downing designed a metal box with four legs which he patented on October 27, 1891. He called his device a street letter box and it is the predecessor of today's mailbox. One year earlier, Downing patented an electrical switch for railroads which allowed railroad workers to supply or shut off power to trains at appropriate times. Based on this design, innovators would later create electrical switches such as light switches used in the home.
The son of former slaves, Garrett Morgan was born in Paris, Kentucky on March 4, 1877. His early childhood was spent attending school and working on the family farm with his brothers and sisters. While still a teenager, he left Kentucky and moved north to Cincinnati, Ohio in search of opportunity. Although Garrett Morgan's formal education never took him beyond elementary school, he hired a tutor while living in Cincinnati and continued his studies in English grammar. In 1895, Morgan moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where he went to work as a sewing machine repair man for a clothing manufacturer. News of his proficiency for fixing things and experimenting traveled fast and led to numerous job offers from various manufacturing firms in the Cleveland area. In 1907, the inventor opened his own sewing equipment and repair shop. It was the first of several businesses he would establish. In 1909, he expanded the enterprise to include a tailoring shop that employed 32 employees. The new company turned out coats, suits and dresses, all sewn with equipment that Garrett Morgan himself had made. In 1920, Garrett Morgan moved into the newspaper business when he established the Cleveland Call. As the years went on, he became a prosperous and widely respected business man, and he was able to purchase a home and an automobile. Indeed it was Morgan's experience while driving along the streets of Cleveland that inspired him to invent an improvement to traffic signals. Gas Mask On July 25, 1916, Garrett Morgan made national news for using his gas mask to rescue 32 men trapped during an explosion in an underground tunnel 250 feet beneath Lake Erie.
Morgan and a team of volunteers donned the new "gas masks" and went to the rescue. After the rescue, Morgan's company received requests from fire departments around the country who wished to purchase the new masks. The Morgan gas mask was later refined for use by U.S. Army during World War I. In 1914, Garrett Morgan was awarded a patent for a Safety Hood and Smoke Protector. Two years later, a refined model of his early gas mask won a gold medal at the International Exposition of Sanitation and Safety, and another gold medal from the International Association of Fire Chiefs. The Morgan Traffic Signal The first American-made automobiles were introduced to U.S. consumers shortly before the turn of the century. The Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 and with it American consumers began to discover the adventures of the open road. In the early years of the 20th century it was not uncommon for bicycles, animal-powered wagons, and new gasoline-powered motor vehicles to share the same streets and roadways with pedestrians. Accidents were frequent. After witnessing a collision between an automobile and a horse-drawn carriage, Garrett Morgan took his turn at inventing a traffic signal. Other inventors had experimented with, marketed, and even patented traffic signals, however, Garrett Morgan was one of the first to apply for and acquire a U.S. patent for an inexpensive to produce traffic signal.
The patent was granted on November 20, 1923. Garrett Morgan also had his invention patented in Great Britain and Canada. Garrett Morgan stated in his patent for the traffic signal, "This invention relates to traffic signals, and particularly to those which are adapted to be positioned adjacent the intersection of two or more streets and are manually operable for directing the flow of traffic... In addition, my invention contemplates the provision of a signal which may be readily and cheaply manufactured." The Morgan traffic signal was a T-shaped pole unit that featured three positions: Stop, Go and an all-directional stop position. This "third position" halted traffic in all directions to allow pedestrians to cross streets more safely. Garrett Morgan's hand-cranked semaphore traffic management device was in use throughout North America until all manual traffic signals were replaced by the automatic red, yellow, and green-light traffic signals currently used around the world. The inventor sold the rights to his traffic signal to the General Electric Corporation for $40,000. Shortly before his death in 1963, Garrett Morgan was awarded a citation for his traffic signal by the United States Government. Other Inventions Garrett Morgan was constantly experimenting to develop new concepts. Though the traffic signal came at the height of his career and became one of his most renowned inventions, it was just one of several innovations he developed, manufactured, and sold over the years. Morgan invented a zig-zag stitching attachment for manually operated sewing machine. He also founded a company that made personal grooming products, such as hair dying ointments and the curved-tooth pressing comb. As word of Garrett Morgan's life-saving inventions spread across North America and England, demand for these products grew. He was frequently invited to conventions and public exhibitions to demonstrate how his inventions worked. Garrett Morgan died on August 27, 1963, at the age of 86. His life was long and full, and his creative energies have given us a marvelous and lasting legacy.
Born in Africa, Onesimus was a slave of Cotton Mather, a Puritan minister in Boston. When a smallpox epidemic broke out in Boston in 1721, Onesimus informed his master about an inoculation procedure practiced in Africa. The centuries-old practice was practiced throughout Africa and involved the extraction of material from the pustule of an infected person and, using a thorn, scratching it into the skin of the unaffected person. The deliberate introduction of smallpox gives the inoculated person immunity from the disease. In some cases, there is no reaction while a mild non-fatal form of the disease may occur in others. Although inoculation was considered to be extremely dangerous, Cotton Mather was steadfast in accepting the reliability of the information provided by Onesimus, and convinced Dr. Zabdiel Boylston to experiment with the procedure. Beginning with his son and two slaves, he inoculated over 240 people. The process of inoculation was politically, medically and religiously opposed in the United States and Europe. In religious circles, it was deemed unnatural and perceived as subverting God's will. Public reaction to the experiment was so adverse that both Mather and Boylston's lives were threatened. Records indicate that the inoculation process itself killed 2 percent of the patients who requested it, while 15 percent of the people who contracted the disease and were not inoculated died from the virus. Onesimus' recollection of a traditional African medical practice saved numerous lives and sparked the introduction of smallpox inoculation in the United States. Traditional African medicine is a holistic science that incorporates considerable use of indigenous herbalism with elements of African spirituality. Illness is not seen as a purely physical problem; it can also be attributed to spiritual causes engendered by displeasing the spirits—ancestors or gods. Traditional healers apply scientific and non-scientific methods. The scientific methods involve the prescription of herbal medicines, which have proven to be just as efficient and also provided the basis for Western medicines. For example, kaolin, the active ingredient in Kaopectate, has always been used to treat diarrhea in Mali; the bark of trees which yield salicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin, has been prescribed by Bantu-speaking healers to cure musculoskeletal diseases. The non-scientific methods involve the appeasement or expulsion of the spirit(s) responsible for the patient's bad health. The social and psychological effects of these methods were highly successful. As in the case of psychotherapy, medication and the power of suggestion were used by traditional healers to treat the whole person.
George Washington Carver
George Washington Carver was born on a farm near Diamond, Missouri, in Newton County about 1865. His mother, Mary, was owned by Moses and Susan Carver. His father, a slave on a neighboring farm, died before George was born. When George was just a few months old, he and his mother were kidnapped from the Carver farm by a band of men who roamed Missouri during the Civil War era. These outlaws hoped to sell George and his mother elsewhere. Young George was recovered by a neighbor and returned to the Carvers, but his mother was not. George and his older brother, Jim, were raised by Moses and Susan Carver. George Washington Carver changed the agricultural and economic life of many poor farmers. From ordinary peanuts he made hundreds of useful products, including milk, cheese, soap, and grease. He also made over a hundred products from sweet potatoes. Though he was offered positions at many other laboratories, Carver always declined, preferring to continue his work among his own race at Tuskegee. Carver died on January 5, 1943, at Tuskegee Institute. He is buried on that campus near the grave of Booker T. Washington. The George Washington Carver National Monument in Diamond was created soon after his death. Established by legislation sponsored by Senator Harry S. Truman, it was the first national memorial to an African American. It stands on the farm where Carver was born.
QUICK VIEW OF OTHER INVENTORS, ITEMS AND DATES.
Air Conditioning Unit > Frederick M. Jones July 12, 1949
Almanac > Benjamin Banneker Approx. 1791
Auto Cut-off Switch > Granville T. Woods January 1, 1839
Auto Fishing Device > G. Cook May 30, 1899
Automatic Gear Shift > Richard Spikes February 28, 1932
Baby Buggy > W. H. Richardson June 18, 1899
Bicycle Frame > L. R. Johnson October 10, 1899
Biscuit Cutter > A. P. Ashbourne November 30, 1875
Blood Plasma Bag > Charles Drew Approx. 1945
Cellular Phone > Henry T. Sampson July 6, 1971
Chamber Commode > T. Elkins January 3, 1897
Clothes Dryer > G. T. Sampson June 6, 1862
Curtain Rod > S. R. Scratton November 30, 1889
Curtain Rod Support > William S. Grant August 4, 1896
Door Knob > O. Dorsey December 10, 1878
Door Stop > O. Dorsey December 10, 1878
Dust Pan > Lawrence P. Ray August 3, 1897
Egg Beater > Willie Johnson February 5, 1884
Electric Lamp bulb > Lewis Latimer March 21, 1882
Elevator > Alexander Miles October 11, 1867
Eye Protector > P. Johnson November 2, 1880
Fire Escape Ladder > J. W. Winters May 7, 1878
Fire Extinguisher > T. Marshall Octobr 26, 1872
Folding Bed > L. C. Bailey July 18, 1899
Folding Chair > Brody & Surgwar June 11,1889
Fountain Pen .> W. B. Purvis January 7, 1890
Furniture Castor > O. A. Fisher 1878
Gas Mask > Garrett Morgan October 13, 1914
Golf Tee > T. Grant December 12, 1899
Guitar Robert > F. Flemming, Jr March 3, 1886
Hair Brush > Lydia O. Newman November 15, 18**
Hand Stamp > Walter B. Purvis February 27, 1883
Horseshoe > J. Ricks March 30, 1885
Ice Cream Scoop > A. L. Cralle February 2, 1897
Improved Sugar Making > Norbet Rillieux December 10, 1846
Insect-Destroyer Gun > A. C. Richard February 28, 1899
Ironing Board > Sarah Boone December 30, 1887
Key Chain > F. J. Loudin January 9, 1894
Lantern > Michael C. Harvey August 19, 1884
Lawn Mower > L. A. Burr May 19, 1889
Lawn Sprinkler > J. W. Smith May 4, 1897
Lemon Squeezer > J. Thomas White December 8, 1893
Lock > W. A. Martin July 23, 18**
Lubricating Cup > Elijah McCoy November 15, 1895
Lunch Pail > James Robinson 1887
Mailbox > Paul L. Downing October 27, 1891
Mop > Thomas W. Stewart June 11, 1893
Motor > Frederick M. Jones June 27, 1939
Peanut Butter > George Washington Carver 1896
Pencil Sharpener > J. L. Love November 23, 1897
Record Player > Arm Joseph Hunger Dickenson January 8, 1819
Refrigerator > J. Standard June 14, 1891
Riding Saddles > W. D. Davis October 6, 1895
Rolling Pin > John W. Reed 1864
Shampoo Headrest > C.O. Bailiff October 11, 1898
Sparkplug > Edmond Berger February 2, 1839
Stethoscope > Imhotep Ancient Egypt
Stove > T. A. Carrington July 25, 1876
Straightening Comb > Madam C. J. Walker Approx. 1905
Street Sweeper > Charles B. Brooks March 17, 1890
Phone Transmitter > Granville T. Woods December 2, 1884
Thermostat Control > Frederick M. Jones February 23, 1960
Traffic Light > Garrett Morgan November 20, 1923
Tricycle > M. A. Cherry May 6, 1886
Typewriter > Burridge & Marshman April 7, 1885